Thunderstorms and lightning are formed by the consequences of an energy disparity in the atmosphere. In the easiest of terms, it is when the atmosphere comes to be excessively warm in its bottommost layers in comparison to the higher layers. Thunderstorms are a forceful illustration of atmospherical convection, with an up thrust and cooling air, and resulting cloud formation and are for the most part frequent in tropical zones, and are uncommon in Arctic countries on account of of cold surface temperatures.
Thunderstorms have several discerning attributes that can result in sizeable amounts of destruction to people and their possessions including causing heavy rain for a short time, anywhere from 30 minutes to an hour and are conventionally around 15 miles in width. There are 4 principal categories of thunderstorms namely, single cell, multi-cell, squall line and super-cell. Surrounded by a group of thunderstorms, the expression “cell” relates to each distinct updraft and whilst the majority of single cell thunderstorms move, there are some uncommon incidents where they endure without much movement.
Lightening forms and manifests itself in the shape of a sizeable spark, or eruption of electric charge, that passes through the air from one charged area of a cloud to another charged area. It originates from a release of electrical energy, which is built up within the thundercloud cloud pursuant to recurrent separation and splitting of water and ice fragments in the turbulent storm environment which discharges when the amassed electric charge develops into a sufficiently large enough charge.
Lightning can be sheet lightning taking place within the cloud or fork lightning amongst clouds.
The lightning itself causes a fast warming of the nearby air, resulting in a abrupt enlargement and shrinking of air that is perceived as thunder. The noise of thunder is in fact caused by the amassed electricity striking the air and causing it to reverberate, this vibration causes a sound ultimately as a result of the extremely hot air pushing against the air particles initiating another reverbation. The rumbling noise of thunder is produced by the vibration or noise bouncing off the surface and the clouds.
Close to the lightning strike the thunder clap may be overheard as a brief booming crack. At a distance, the thunder reverberates causing the rolling thunder sound, because sound from distinctive sections of the lightning strike is not all heard at the same moment. It is possible to approximate how far away in the distance a lightning strike is by calculating the duration taken for the thunder to materialize at your current location. This is achieved by counting the seconds from the appearance of the lightning strike to the first rumbling of thunder, subsequently dividing this period by 5.
It is assessed at any given time approximately 2,000 electric storms are in progression over the World’s surface, and lightning forms and strikes the Planet one hundred times each second. Thunderstorms have been recognized to form in virtually every region of the globe, notwithstanding the fact that they are uncommon in the Arctic territories given the absence of consistent high temperatures. These amazing storms are as some believe nature’s methods of balancing the electrical forces that subsist amid the Earth and the upper atmosphere a natural pressure valve if you will.